Secular Emptiness

Scientific Studies of Cessation, Etc.

Chowdhury, A., Lutterveld, RV., Laukkonen, R. E., Slagter, HA., Ingram, DM., Sacchet, MD. (2023). Investigation of advanced mindfulness meditation “cessation” experiences using EEG spectral analysis in an intensively sampled case study. Neuropsychologia.

Ciaunica, A., et al. 2021. "Whatever Next and Close to My Self—The Transparent Senses and the “Second Skin”: Implications for the Case of Depersonalization." Frontiers in Psychology. 31 May 2021.

Gamma, A. and Metzinger, T. 2021. "The Minimal Phenomenal Experience questionnaire (MPE-92M): Towards a phenomenological profile of 'pure awareness' experiences in meditators." Plos One.

Gordon, W. Van, Sapthiang, S. and Shonin, E. 2021. "Contemplative Psychology: History, Key Assumptions, and Future Directions." Perspectives on Psychological Science. doi: 10.1177/1745691620984479.

Laukkonen, R. E. and Slagter, H. A. S. (2021). "From many to (n)one: Meditation and the plasticity of the predictive mind." Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 128, 199-217. (

Laukkonen, R. E., Sacchet, M. D., Barendregt, H.., Devaney, K. D., Chowdhury, A., Slagter, H. A. (2023). "Cessations of consciousness in meditation: Advancing a scientific understanding of nirodha samāpatti." Progress in Brain Research 280:61-87.

Metzinger, T. 2020. "Minimal phenomenal experience: Meditation, tonic alertness, and the phenomenology of “pure” consciousness." Philosophy and the Mind Sciences, 1(I), 7.

Nave, O. et al. 2021. "Self-Boundary Dissolution in Meditation: A Phenomenological Investigation" Brain Sciences. 11, no. 6: 819.

Pagnoni, G. and Guareschi, F. T. (2021) "Meditative in-action: an endogenous epistemic venture". PsyArXiv Preprints.

Srinivasan, Narayanan. 2020. "Consciousness Without Content: A Look at Evidence and Prospects." Frontiers in Psychology.

Tulver, K., Kaup, K. K., Laukkonen, R. E., & Aru, J. (2023). Restructuring insight: An integrative review of insight in problem-solving, meditation, psychotherapy, delusions and psychedelics. Consciousness and Cognition.

Winter Ulf, et al. 2020. "Content Free Awareness: EEG-fcMRI Correlates of Consciousness as Such in an Expert Meditator." Frontiers in Psychology. 10

Woods, T. J., Windt, J.M., and Carter, O. (2022). "The path to contentless experience in meditation: An evidence synthesis based on expert texts". Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences.

Yaden, D. B. et al. 2015). "The Language of Ineffability: Linguistic Analysis of Mystical Experiences. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality." American Psychological Association.


Anālayo (2012). “A gradual entry into emptiness: Depicted in the early Buddhist discourses.” Thai International Journal for Buddhist Studies, III, 25-56.

Anālayo. (2015). Compassion and Emptiness in Early Buddhist Meditation. Windhorse Publications.

Anālayo. (2022). "Being Mindful of What is Absent." Mindfulness 13:1671–1678.

Anālayo. (2023). The Signless and the Deathless: On the Realization of Nirvana. Wisdom Publications. 

Anālayo. (2024). Abiding in Emptiness: A Guide for Meditative Practice.Wisdom Publications. 

Metzinger, Thomas. (2024). The Elephant and the Blind: The Experience of Pure Consciousness: Philosophy, Science, and 500+ Experiential Reports. The MIT Press. DOI:

Polak, Grzegorz. (2023)."The Pleasure of Not Experiencing Anything: Some Reflections on Consciousness in the Context of the Early Buddhist Nikāyas." Religions 14(11):1347.

Polak, Grzegorz. (2023). "Can Cessation Be a Cognitive State? Philosophical Implications of the Apophatic Teachings of the Early Buddhist Nikāyas". Philosophy East and West 73(3):740-761

Stuart, Daniel M. (2013). Thinking About Cessation: The Pṛṣṭhapālasūtra of the Dīrghāgama in Context. Wiener Studien zur Tibetologie und Buddhismuskunde

Related Posts with Thumbnails